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Monday, May 11, 2009

TINGKATAN 1 BAB 3 - KERAJAAN AWAL DI ASIA TENGGARA



CIRI-CIRI KERAJAAN AGRARIA


1. KERAJAAN FUNAN

  • terawal di Asia Tenggara
  • berpusat di Vyadhapura
  • raja pertama - Kaundiya (Kurung Bnam)
  • jeneral agung - Fan Shih Man
  • pelabuhan utama - Oc-eo
  • Sungai Mekong adalah nadi utama kerajaan ini



KERAJAAN ANGKOR

  • terletak di hilir Sg Mekong
  • kawasan pertanian utama di sekitar Tasik Tonle Sap
  • raja dianggap sebagai 'Devaraja'
  • mencapai kegemilangan semasa pemerintahan Raja Suryavarman II
  • agama utama ialah Hindu-Buddha


KERAJAAN CHAMPA


  • diasaskan oleh CHU- LIEN
  • dipengaruhi agama Hindu
  • pelabuhan terkenal ialah Inderapura
  • diterajui oleh raja bernama Bhadravarnom


KERAJAAN CHIH TU

  • bermaksud ‘TANAH MERAH’
  • diasaskan oleh Raja Guatama
  • dipengaruhi oleh agama Hindu

CIRI-CIRI KERAJAAN MARITIM



1. KERAJAAN SRIVIJAYA (KURUN KE 7 M)



  • Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Hindu kingdom on the island of Sumatra Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. 'Sri'is a Sanskrit title of verenation and vijaya means victory. The current Malay population of today is in much denial about Srivijaya's Hindu and Indian roots. The very name of the empire is Indian. Indian language, art,archietecture, religion and cuisine were all absorbed by the locals. Before the arrival of Indians, the natives of the Malay Peninsula had no language or culture. In fact it was Indians who taught them to eat with their fingers and communicate with a proper language. Which today has evolved into Malay.



  • After Srivijaya fell, it was largely forgotten and so historians had never considered that a large united kingdom could have been present in Southeast Asia. The existence of Srivijaya was only formally suspected in 1918 when French historian George Coedès of the École française d'Extrême-Orient postulated the existence of the empire. Around 1992 and 1993, Pierre-Yves Manguin proved that the centre of Srivijaya was along the Musi River between Bukit Seguntang and Sabokingking (situated in what is now the province of South Sumatra, Indonesia)
  • berpusat di PALEMBANG
  • raja dianggap sebagai 'Raja Digunung' dan 'Maharaja di Pulau'
  • mewujudkan 3 bahagian pentadbiran - pentadbiran diraja, pentadbiran ketenteraan dan pentadbiran daerah
  • menguasai Selat Melaka, Selat Sunda dan Laut Jawa

2. KEDAH TUA (KURUN KE 5 M)


  • dikenali sebagai 'KATAHA' atau 'CHEH-CHA'
  • pelabuhan utama ialah Sungai Mas dan Lembah Bujang
  • dipengaruhi agama Hindu-Buddha
  • Gunung Jerai sebagai panduan pedagang



3. MAJAPAHIT (DIASASKAN PADA 1292M)


  • diasaskan oleh RADEN WIJAYA
  • menerima pengaruh Hindu-Buddha
  • pentadbiran berasaskan Undang-Undang Manu
  • mengamalkan konsep Devaraja
  • gemilang semasa pemerintahan HAYAM WURUK dan Perdana Menteri PATIH GAJAH MADA
  • pelabuhan utama - Kataha dan Temasik


Majapahit - Leaderships and kings

  • Majapahit was an indianized kingdom based in eastern Java between 1293 and 1500. The greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk around 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in Southern Malay (Peninsula), Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines. It was the last of the great Hindu empires of the Malay Archipelago.
  • Kertarajasa, also known as Wijaya was the founder of the Majapahit empire. Wijaya ascended the throne as the first king of Majapahit in 1293 AD. Some of his most trusted men set rebellion against the king, but they all died in misery. Wijaya died in 1309 AD. His son, Jayanegara, whose mother was a Malay princess, succeeded him. He was not a good king, because he was willing to take his stepsisters as wifes. He was called "Kala Gemet" or "Weak villain". Jayanegary was murded by his surgeon on 1328 AD. Then the daughter of his stepmother, Tribhuwana, became the queen of Majapahit. During her rule Majapahit grew to be a great kingdom and famous on all the seas on the Archipelago and abroad. She ruled untill her mother's death in 1350 AD. Then her son Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne.
  • Gajah Mada, an ambitious Majapahit primeminister and regent from 1331 to 1364 AD, extended the empire's rule to include most of the present day Indonesia.



This is external image temple_Hayam_Wuruk
This temple is a memory of Hayam Wuruk, the greatest ruler of Majapahit


SISTEM PEMERINTAHAN KERAJAN AWAL

  • DIPENGARUHI OLEH HINDU DAN BUDDHA
  • PEMERINTAH BERKUASA MUTLAK
  • RAJA SEBAGAI KETUA NEGARA,KETUA AGAMA,KETUA TENTERA.
  • RAJA MENGUASAI EKONOMI
  • RAJA MEMBINA SISTEM PENGAIRAN DAN TERUSAN


Sumber Rujukan: http://sukosenseipmr.blogspot.com/

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